Hướng dẫn giải chi tiết đề thi đại học môn tiếng Anh khối D năm 2012

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Hướng dẫn giải chi tiết đề thi Đại học khối D năm 2012 môn tiếng Anh mã đề 475. Đây là phần demo ban đầu của tuyển tập các đề thi thử và tuyển sinh đại học, cao đẳng qua các năm có hướng dẫn giải chi tiết. BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỀ CHÍNH THỨC (Đề thi có 07 trang) ĐỀ THI TUYỂN SINH ĐẠI HỌC NĂM 2012 Môn : TIẾNG ANH; Khối D Thời gian làm bài: 90 phút, không kể thời gian phát đề Mã đề thi 475 Họ, tên thí sinh: Số báo danh: ĐỀ THI GỒM 80 CÂU (TỪ QUESTION 1 ĐẾN QUESTION 80) Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to show the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions. Question 1: Most greetings cards are folding and have a picture on the front and a message inside. A B C D Question 2: Aloha is a Hawaiian word meaning ‘love’, that can be used to say hello or goodbye. A B C D Question 3: The Oxford English Dictionary is well known for including many different meanings of A B C words and to give real examples. D Question 4: When you are writing or speaking English it is important to use language that includes A B C both men and women equally the same. D Question 5: It was disappointing that almost of the guests left the wedding too early. A B C D Read the following passage on commuting, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 6 to 15. Commuting is the practice of travelling a long distance to a town or city to work each day, and then travelling home again in the evening. The word commuting comes from commutation ticket, a US rail ticket for repeated journeys, called a season ticket in Britain. Regular travellers are called commuters. The US has many commuters. A few, mostly on the East Coast, commute by train or subway, but most depend on the car. Some leave home very early to avoid the traffic jams, and sleep in their cars until their office opens. Many people accept a long trip to work so that they can live in quiet bedroom communities away from the city, but another reason is ‘white flight’. In the 1960s most cities began to desegregate their schools, so that there were no longer separate schools for white and black children. Many white families did not want to send their children to desegregated schools, so they moved to the suburbs, which have their own schools, and where, for various reasons, few black people live. Millions of people in Britain commute by car or train. Some spend two or three hours a day travelling, so that they and their families can live in suburbia or in the countryside. Cities are surrounded by commuter belts. Part of the commuter belt around London is called the stockbroker belt because it contains houses where rich business people live. Some places are becoming dormitory towns, because people sleep there but take little part in local activities. Most commuters travel to and from work at the same time, causing the morning and evening rush hours, when buses and trains are crowded and there are traffic jams on the roads. Commuters on trains rarely talk to each other and spend their journey reading, sleeping or using their mobile phones, though this is not popular with other passengers. Increasing numbers of people now work at home some days of the week, linked to their offices by computer, a practice called telecommuting. Trang 1/7 – Mã đề thi 475 -> bị động -> folded -> which giving song hành equally = the sam -> bỏ 1 trong 2 almost all of almost là trạng từ 6 8 9a,d 9a,d 9b: not save time 10 11 12d 12a 12b,c liên kết với, kết nối với Cities in both Britain and the US are trying to reduce the number of cars coming into town each day. Some companies encourage car pooling (called car sharing in Britain), an arrangement for people who live and work near each other to travel together. Some US cities have a public service that helps such people to contact each other, and traffic lanes are reserved for car-pool vehicles. But cars and petrol/gas are cheap in the US, and many people prefer to drive alone because it gives them more freedom. In Britain many cities have park-and-ride schemes, car parks on the edge of the city from which buses take drivers into the centre. (Extracted from Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press, 2000) Question 6: Which of the following definitions of commuting would the author of this passage most probably agree with? A. Travelling to work and then home again in a day within a rural district. B. Travelling for hours from a town or city to work in the countryside every day. C. Regularly travelling a long distance between one’s place of work and one’s home. D. Using a commutation ticket for special journeys in all seasons of the year. Question 7: The word “repeated” in paragraph 1 most probably means ______. A. buying a season ticket again B. happening again and again C. saying something again D. doing something once again Question 8: The passage mentions that many Americans are willing to travel a long distance to work in order to be able to live in ______. A. quiet neighbourhoods B. comfortable bedrooms C. city centres D. noisy communities Question 9: Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. The US has considerably more commuters than Britain. B. Commuting helps people in the US and Britain save a lot of time. C. Britain has considerably more commuters than the US. D. Both the US and Britain have a great number of commuters. Question 10: Which of the following is NOT true about the London commuter belt? A. It surrounds London. B. It is in central London. C. It is home to some wealthy business people. D. It is like “bedroom communities” in the US. Question 11: It can be inferred from the passage that dormitory towns in Britain are places where people ______. A. stay for the night B. contribute to the local community C. are employed locally D. take part in local activities Question 12: As mentioned in the passage, commuters usually ______. A. talk to each other during train journeys B. go to work at different hours C. go home from work at different hours D. cause traffic congestion on the roads Question 13: The phrase “linked to” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ______. A. shared with B. satisfied with C. connected to D. related to Question 14: All of the following are measures to reduce the number of cars coming into town each day in the US and/or Britain EXCEPT ______. A. traffic lanes for car pooling B. free car parks in the city centre C. park-and-ride schemes D. car pooling/sharing Question 15: The word “it” in the last paragraph refers to ______. A. travelling together B. car pool C. driving alone D. petrol/gas Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. Question 16: The struggle for women’s rights began in the 18 th century during a period ______ as the Age of Enlightenment. A. known B. is knowing C. that knew D. knew Question 17: Scientists have ______ a lot of research into renewable energy sources. A. solved B. made C. carried D. done Trang 2/7 – Mã đề thi 475 lặp đi lặp lại vùng lân cận nói chung, không đề cập đến số lượng nói chung, không có số lượng cụ thể 14 which was known -> known to do research Question 18: When Peter was a child, there ______ a cinema near his house. A. used to be being B. used to have been C. used to have D. used to be Question 19: He didn’t know______ or stay until the end of the festival. A. if to go B. if that he should go C. to go D. whether to go Question 20: The team were eager to make ______ the loss of the previous match. A. away with B. off with C. up for D. up with Question 21: You should look up the meaning of new words in the dictionary ______ misuse them. A. so that not to B. so not to C. so as not to D. so that not Question 22: My mother had to work 12 hours a day in a factory just to ______. A. make ends meet B. call it a day C. tighten the belt D. break the ice Question 23: As a(n) ______ girl, she found it difficult to socialise with other students in the class. A. reserved B. industrious C. ashamed D. dynamic Question 24: ______ smoking is a causative factor of many diseases, there is no ban on tobacco advertising. A. However B. Although C. In spite of D. Therefore Question 25: Working as a volunteer gives her a chance to develop her interpersonal skills, promote friendship, and ______ her own talent. A. discovering B. to discover C. discover D. discovered Question 26: The bad weather caused serious damage to the crop. If only it ______ warmer. A. has been B. had been C. was D. were Question 27: He is coming ______ a cold after a night out in the rain. A. away from B. down with C. across with D. up with Question 28: New machinery has enhanced the company’s productivity and ______. A. competitor B. competition C. competitive D. competitiveness Question 29: In a formal interview, it is essential to maintain good eye ______ with the interviewers. A. contact B. touch C. link D. connection Question 30: The restaurants on the island are expensive, so it’s worth ______ a packed lunch. A. taken B. taking C. to take D. take Question 31: Before going to bed, he wanted some tea but there was ______ left. A. nothing B. a few C. any D. no Question 32: Mary: “Thanks a lot for your help.” John: “______.” A. My happiness B. My delight C. My pleasure D. My excitement Question 33: It has been suggested that Mary ______ a computer course in preparation for a steady job. A. take B. would have taken C. was taken D. have been taken Question 34: Tom: “When are we leaving for the concert?” Kyle : “______.” A. Straight away B. That’s right C. Certainly D. No problem Question 35: It was so kind of her to put me ______ while I was on a business trip in her town. A. up B. down C. in D. off Question 36: It is interesting to take ______ a new hobby such as collecting stamps or going fishing. A. over B. up C. in D. on Question 37: Mary: “I will never go mountaineering again.” Linda: “Me ______.” A. so B. too C. neither D. either Question 38: After the car crash last night, all the injured ______ to the hospital in an ambulance. A. was rushing B. were rushing C. was rushed D. were rushed Question 39: The recent heavy rains have helped to ease the water ______. A. poverty B. shortage C. abundance D. plenty Trang 3/7 – Mã đề thi 475 đã từng whether or make up for: đền bù cho để mà so as to/ in order to + V0 so that/ in order that + S_V xoay sở kiếm sống qua ngày ngừng làm việc thắt chặt hầu bao bắt chuyện vs ai đó nhút nhát, dè dặt cần cù, siêng năng xấu hổ năng động song hành vs develop sau gives her a chance to giả định -> lùi thì come down with: mắc bệnh gì đó tính cạnh tranh N song hành vs productivity sau company’s cuộc thi it’s worth + V-ng + Ns + N + N giả định put SO up: cho ai ngủ nhờ take up: chọn take over: đame nhận take in: hấp thụ take on: cần đến Question 40: Television can make things memorable for the reason that it presents information ______ an effective way. A. over B. with C. in D. on Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions. Question 41: The repeated commercials on TV distract many viewers from watching their favourite films. A. advertisements B. contests C. businesses D. economics Question 42: As tourism is more developed, people worry about the damage to the flora and fauna of the island. A. fruits and vegetables B. flowers and trees C. plants and animals D. mountains and forests Question 43: It is such a prestigious university that only excellent students are entitled to a full scholarship each year. A. have the obligation to B. have the right to refuse C. are refused the right to D. are given the right to Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions. Question 44: Affluent families find it easier to support their children financially. A. Wealthy B. Well-off C. Privileged D. Impoverished Question 45: After five days on trial, the court found him innocent of the crime and he was released. A. benevolent B. innovative C. naive D. guilty Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress in each of the following questions. Question 46: A. characterise B. facility C. irrational D. variety Question 47: A. traditional B. majority C. appropriate D. electrician Question 48: A. depend B. vanish C. decay D. attack Question 49: A. elephant B. agreement C. mineral D. violent Question 50: A. accountant B. professor C. develop D. typical Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions. Question 51: Put your coat on. You will get cold. A. It is not until you put your coat on that you will get cold. B. Put your coat on, otherwise you will get cold. C. You not only put your coat on but also get cold. D. You will not get cold unless you put your coat on. Question 52: Ann always keeps up with the latest fashions. She works for a famous fashion house. A. Despite working for a famous fashion house, Ann hardly keeps up with the latest fashions. B. Ann always keeps up with the latest fashions so as not to work for a famous fashion house. C. Not working for a famous fashion house, Ann always keeps up with the latest fashions. D. Ann works for a famous fashion house, so she always keeps up with the latest fashions. Question 53: Everyone was watching the little dog. They were greatly amused at it. A. The little dog was greatly amused by the way everyone was watching it. B. Everyone felt great and amused when the little dog was watching them. C. The little dog was watching everyone with great amusement. D. Everyone was greatly amused at the little dog they were watching. Trang 4/7 – Mã đề thi 475 in an active way to be entitle to = to be given the right to ST/ to do ST giàu có nghèo đói sung túc được dặc quyền ngây thơ, vô tội mang tội 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 theo kịp be amused at ST: thích thú cái gì đó Question 54: Mike graduated with a good degree. However, he joined the ranks of the unemployed. A. Although Mike graduated with a good degree, he joined the ranks of the unemployed. B. If Mike graduated with a good degree, he would join the ranks of the unemployed. C. Mike joined the ranks of the unemployed because he graduated with a good degree. D. That Mike graduated with a good degree helped him join the ranks of the unemployed. Question 55: They drove fifteen miles off the main road. Also, they had nothing to eat for the day. A. They drove fifteen miles off the main road until they had something to eat for the day. B. They neither drove fifteen miles off the main road nor had anything to eat for the day. C. Driving fifteen miles off the main road, they eventually had something to eat for the day. D. Not only did they drive fifteen miles off the main road, they also had nothing to eat for the day. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is CLOSEST in meaning to each of the following questions. Question 56: I was astonished that he knew a lot about Vietnamese food. A. It surprised me that Vietnamese food was what he liked most. B. I was astonished at his poor knowledge of Vietnamese food. C. That he knew a lot about Vietnamese food amazed me. D. I knew very little about Vietnamese food, which astonished him. Question 57: “If I were you, I would not choose to write about such a sensitive topic,” the teacher said. A. I was blamed for writing about such a sensitive topic by the teacher. B. I was ordered by the teacher not to write about such a sensitive topic. C. The teacher advised me on writing about such a sensitive topic. D. The teacher advised me against writing about such a sensitive topic. Question 58: Martin missed his flight because he had not been informed of the change in flight schedule. A. Martin missed his flight, though he had been informed of the change in flight schedule. B. Martin had been informed of his flight delay, which was due to the change in flight schedule. C. Not having been informed of the change in flight schedule, Martin missed his flight. D. Not having missed his flight, Martin was informed of the change in flight schedule. Question 59: “We lost the last game because of the referee,” said the team captain. A. The team captain refused to tell the referee about their loss in the last game. B. The team captain admitted to the referee that they had lost the last game. C. The team captain blamed the referee for their loss in the last game. D. The team captain said that without the referee, they might have lost the last game. Question 60: The man wore gloves in order not to leave any fingerprints. A. His fingerprints would not be left unless the man wore gloves. B. The man wore gloves so that he would not leave any fingerprints. C. The man wore gloves in order that his fingerprints would be taken. D. In order to leave some fingerprints the man took off his gloves. Read the following passage on native Americans, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase for each of the blanks from 61 to 70. The first American immigrants, beginning more than 20,000 years ago, were intercontinental wanderers: hunters and their families following animal (61)______ from Asia to America, across a land bridge where the Bering Strait is today. (62)______ Spain’s Christopher Columbus “discovered” the New World in 1492, about 1.5 million Native Americans lived in what is now the continental United States, although estimates of the number (63)______ greatly. Mistaking the place where he landed – San Salvador in the Bahamas – (64)______ the Indies, Columbus called the Native Americans “Indians.” During the next 200 years, people from several European countries followed Columbus across the Atlantic Ocean to explore America and (65)______ up trading posts and colonies. Native Americans suffered (66)______ from the influx of Europeans. The transfer of land from Indian to European – and later American – hands (67)______ accomplished through treaties, wars, and coercion, with Trang 5/7 – Mã đề thi 475 thất nghiệp > advise blame for: đổ lỗi -> để mà N greatly chịu ảnh hưởng mạnh mẽ sự kiện trong quá khứ Indians constantly giving (68)______ as the newcomers moved west. In the 19th century, the government’s preferred solution to the Indian “problem” was to force tribes to inhabit specific plots of land called reservations. Some tribes fought to keep from (69)______ land they had traditionally used. In many cases the reservation land was (70)______ poor quality, and Indians came to depend on government assistance. Poverty and joblessness among Native Americans still exist today. (Extracted from InfoUSA – CD Version) Question 61: A. herds B. packs C. flocks D. bunches Question 62: A. When B. Not until C. During D. Meanwhile Question 63: A. modify B. adjust C. vary D. adapt Question 64: A. like B. for C. to D. with Question 65: A. bring B. go C. set D. make Question 66: A. deliberately B. marginally C. greatly D. vaguely Question 67: A. had been B. was C. have been D. were Question 68: A. road B. direction C. way D. signal Question 69: A. giving up B. coming about C. breaking down D. staying up Question 70: A. with B. of C. under D. in Read the following passage on learning by Mazur, James E, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 71 to 80. Learning means acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors. It is common to think of learning as something that takes place in school, but much of human learning occurs outside the classroom, and people continue to learn throughout their lives. Even before they enter school, young children learn to walk, to talk, and to use their hands to manipulate toys, food, and other objects. They use all of their senses to learn about the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells in their environments. They learn how to interact with their parents, siblings, friends, and other people important to their world. When they enter school, children learn basic academic subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. They also continue to learn a great deal outside the classroom. They learn which behaviors are likely to be rewarded and which are likely to be punished. They learn social skills for interacting with other children. After they finish school, people must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect their lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job. Because learning continues throughout our lives and affects almost everything we do, the study of learning is important in many different fields. Teachers need to understand the best ways to educate children. Psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other human-service workers need to understand how certain experiences change people’s behaviors. Employers, politicians, and advertisers make use of the principles of learning to influence the behavior of workers, voters, and consumers. Learning is closely related to memory, which is the storage of information in the brain. Psychologists who study memory are interested in how the brain stores knowledge, where this storage takes place, and how the brain later retrieves knowledge when we need it. In contrast, psychologists who study learning are more interested in behavior and how behavior changes as a result of a person’s experiences. There are many forms of learning, ranging from simple to complex. Simple forms of learning involve a single stimulus. A stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight, sound, smell, touch, or taste. In a form of learning known as classical conditioning, people learn to associate two stimuli that occur in sequence, such as lightning followed by thunder. In operant conditioning, people learn by forming an association between a behavior and its consequences (reward or punishment). People and animals can also learn by observation – that is, by watching others perform behaviors. More complex forms of learning include learning languages, concepts, and motor skills. (Extracted from Microsoft® Student 2009 – DVD Version) Trang 6/7 – Mã đề thi 475 animal herds: các bầy động vật khác nhau mistake ST for ST set up: thành lập, thiết lập thận trọng, kỹ càng cận biên, riad gần đúng give away: mở đường, khởi đầu cho việc gì giving up giữ lại đất đai thay đổi hỏng hóc thức khuya to be of poor quality: chất lượng không tốt 71 72 73 74 75, 76 77 78 79 Question 71: According to the passage, which of the following is learning in broad view comprised of? A. Knowledge acquisition and ability development B. Acquisition of academic knowledge C. Acquisition of social and behavioural skills D. Knowledge acquisition outside the classroom Question 72: According to the passage, what are children NOT usually taught outside the classroom? A. interpersonal communication B. life skills C. literacy and calculation D. right from wrong Question 73: Getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job are mentioned in paragraph 2 as examples of ______. A. the changes to which people have to orient themselves B. the situations in which people cannot teach themselves C. the areas of learning which affect people’s lives D. the ways people’s lives are influenced by education Question 74: Which of the following can be inferred about the learning process from the passage? A. It becomes less challenging and complicated when people grow older. B. It plays a crucial part in improving the learner’s motivation in school. C. It takes place more frequently in real life than in academic institutions. D. It is more interesting and effective in school than that in life. Question 75: According to the passage, the study of learning is important in many fields due to ______. A. the influence of various behaviours in the learning process B. the great influence of the on-going learning process C. the exploration of the best teaching methods D. the need for certain experiences in various areas Question 76: It can be inferred from the passage that social workers, employers, and politicians concern themselves with the study of learning because they need to ______. A. thoroughly understand the behaviours of the objects of their interest B. understand how a stimulus relates to the senses of the objects of their interest C. change the behaviours of the objects of their interest towards learning D. make the objects of their interest more aware of the importance of learning Question 77: The word “retrieves ” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _______. A. generates B. creates C. gains D. recovers Question 78: Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage? A. Psychologists studying memory are concerned with the brain’s storage of knowledge. B. Psychologists are all interested in memory as much as behaviours. C. Psychologists studying learning are interested in human behaviours. D. Psychologists studying memory are concerned with how the stored knowledge is used. Question 79: According to the passage, the stimulus in simple forms of learning ______. A. is created by the senses B. is associated with natural phenomena C. makes associations between behaviours D. bears relation to perception Question 80: The passage mainly discusses ______. A. general principles of learning B. application of learning principles to formal education C. simple forms of learning D. practical examples of learning inside the classroom THE END Trang 7/7 – Mã đề thi 475. GIÁO D C VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỀ CHÍNH THỨC (Đề thi có 07 trang) ĐỀ THI TUYỂN SINH ĐẠI HỌC NĂM 2012 Môn: TIẾNG ANH; Khối D Thời gian làm bài: 90 phút, không kể thời gian phát đề Mã đề thi. unemployed. B. If Mike graduated with a good degree, he would join the ranks of the unemployed. C. Mike joined the ranks of the unemployed because he graduated with a good degree. D. That Mike graduated. amused at ST: thích thú cái gì đó Question 54: Mike graduated with a good degree. However, he joined the ranks of the unemployed. A. Although Mike graduated with a good degree, he joined the

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